Special issue: Intelligent Transportation Systems

Vol. 60, n° 3-4, March-April 2005
Content available on Springerlink

Guest editor
Jacques Ehlrich, INRETS, France


Jacques Ehrlich

Intelligent vehicle R&D: A review and contrast of programs worldwide and emerging trends

Richard BISHOP

Bishop Consulting, PO Box 80, Granite, MD 21163, USA. Publisher, ivsource.net

 Abstract Intelligent Vehicle (IV) systems are becoming increasingly common on automobiles, heavy trucks, transit buses, and even in the military. Intelligent vehicle systems are defined as systems which sense the driving environment and provide information and/or control to assist the driver in optimal vehicle operation. The focus is on the “tactical level” function of driving (steering/braking/throttle), as distinct from the “strategic level” of route selection, etc. A similar term used widely in Europe is Advanced Driver Assistance Systems. This paper provides an overview of intelligent vehicle R&D activities worldwide, focusing primarily on Europe, Japan, and the USA. Key applications are described, and government-sponsored programs, industrial development, market factors, and user issues are covered. An analysis is provided as to key differences between major programs, and a set of research priorities for the development of enabling technologies is offered.

Keywords Road vehicule, Research and development, Research program, Review, Automation, Motocar industry, Traffic aids, User assistance, Road safety.

Endeavor for ITS in Japan

Kazuhide KIYASU, Tadashi OKUTANI

National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport, 1 Asahi, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki Prefecture 305-0804 Japan.

Abstract Traffic infrastructure and vehicles provide fundamental support for diverse economic activities in Japan and spur further progress. Nevertheless, they also take a heavy toll in the form of traffic accidents and congestion, despite the various countermeasures we have taken. Intelligent Transportation Systems (its), drawing upon information technology to allow the systems to integrate “human”, “roads” and “vehicles”, offers enormous potential to give solutions to these perennial problems. The emerging integrated infrastructure can sustain industrial developments as well as stimulate innovation for social reengineering in the 21st century. This paper reports the status of ITS applications research, development efforts, and system introductions, as well as the developments of GIS data to lay the groundwork for the systems platform

Keywords Road transportation, Road vehicule, Research and development, Japan, Consumer application, Radiocommunication, Road safety, Land information system.

Driving assistance systems and road safety: state-of-the-art and outlook


Laboratoire sur les Interactions Véhicule-Infrastructure-Conducteur (LIVIC), Unité mixte INRETS/LCPC, 14 route de la Minière, Bât. 824, 78000 Versailles Satory, France.

Abstract The R&D field associated with driving assistance is very active. This paper presents a state-of-the-art of driving assistance systems and an outlook of this domain. What foudations have served to structure research in this field? Which functions are being developed and which of the major technical avenues will be responsible for basing the systems of tomorrow? What can be expected from the work currently undertaken? This paper is an attempt to provide response to such questions in particular with research conducted at the LIVIC Laboratory.

Keywords Road vehicule, Road safety, User assistance, State of the art, Accident, Futurology.

Road obstacles detection by stereovision: the “v-disparity” approach


Laboratoire sur les Interactions Véhicule-Infrastructure-Conducteur (LIVIC), unité mixte INRETS-LCPC, 14 route dela minière, Bât. 824, 78000 Versailles Satory, France.

Abstract This paper presents an innovating real time method for detecting road obstacles by on board stereovision. After having exposed the stakes of the obstacles detection, having presented the state of the art and having identified the problems to be solved, the developed approach is described. It is based on the analysis of the “v-disparity” image, which provides a suitable representation of the geometric content of the road scene. The method is then evaluated with respect to the problems generally affecting stereovision approaches. The theoretical good properties of the “v-disparity” algorithm – genericity, effectiveness, robustness, and computational efficiency – are thus experimentally confirmed. Thanks to the performances obtained, the described algorithm is used for on board driving assistance applications.

Keywords Road vehicule, Road safety, Stereoscopy, Computer vision, Image processing, User assistance, Collision detection, Real time, System evaluation.

The radar in the automotive domain

Jean-Paul ARTIS, Stéphane KEMKEMIAN

THALES systèmes aéroportés – 2, avenue Gay Lussac – 78851 Elancourt – France.

Abstract The principle of radar is based on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation. Reflection of this radiation may be used to detect a target’s presence and, subsequently, to calculate its position and speed. The first practical radar applications date from before second World War but radar techniques are widely used nowadays in a large number of mostly military or “professional” civilian applications. They make use of extremely high frequencies generated by traditionally expensive technologies. Recent advances in electronics components, in terms of speed of development and cost, allow us to predict radar being used for civilian mass-market products, such as motor cars. In particular, these advances concern RF components in the millimeter wave bands with highspeed, wide-range digitization systems and digital signal processors. Included amongst the potential motor industry applications are:
– Intelligent road-speed control (Adaptive Cruise Control),
– Its urban driving equivalent, Stop and Go,
– Short-range applications (parking aids, etc),
– Anti-collision systems (against fixed or moving objects)

Keywords Road vehicule, Radar, Consumer application, Didactic paper, Millimetric wave, Adaptive control, User assistance, System description, Traffic aids.

From EGNOS to Galileo: A European vision of satellite-based radio navigation

Roger PAGNY*, Jean-Claude DARDELET**, Jean CHENEBAULT***

* Ministère de l’Equipement, DRAST – Tour Pascal B – 92055 La Défense cedex, France
** ALCATEL SPACE – 26 avenue J.F. Champollion – BP 1187 – 31037 Toulouse Cedex 1, France
*** Pole Star – 9 rue Paulin Talabot – « Le Solenzara » – 31100 Toulouse, France

Abstract Geographical positioning by satellite is taking on an increasingly important role in our everyday lives, as countless sectors of activity begin to rely on precise knowledge of location and time. The American GPS system has a worldwide monopoly in this domain but offers no guarantee in terms of the quality of the services that it provides. For this reason, in 1994 the European Union decided to adopt its own satellite navigation strategy. The first stage of this strategy consisted in developing a European regional GPS signal augmentation system, known as EGNOS with the aim of improving the precision and availability of GPS signals. EGNOS will be integrated into the second stage of Europe’s satellite navigation strategy, which consists in launching a new constellation of satellites, referred to as Galileo. Galileo will be an autonomous system, thereby guaranteeing Europe’s independence and sovereignty. At the same time, its compatibility with the American GPS system will enable users equipped with bi-mode Galileo-GPS receivers to benefit from both systems. Thanks to new frequency bands allocated to RNSS systems, Galileo will benefit from the same rights in terms of signal definition and this will allow Galileo to provide different levels of service. The outcome will be a system offering greater precision than GPS and user guarantees in terms of quality. For Europe, the issues at stake are considerable and cover numerous areas of activity: transport, agriculture, defence, search and rescue, telecommunications and construction. Galileo benefits from a considerable backing from the European Commission and Member States.

Keywords Satellite radionavigation, Global Positioning System, European union, Research program, System realization, Frequency allocation, System architecture, System performance.

Communication needs of intelligent transportation systems: adequacy of generic solutions from the market


NAVECOM – 2 rue du Plaimont, 91430 Igny, France

Abstract This article will give an overview about telecommunications in the world of Intelligent Transportation Systems and Smart Devices, and about their ability to comply with the needs of the new Systems. A distinction will be made between critical services which are dimensioning ones, and conventional services when available from the open market. A functional analysis will be used to outline an Architecture, which is telecom-centered, with both transit and distribution facets. State-of-the-Art solutions for large-scale wireless accessing and networking will be reviewed, and characterized according to their degree of suitability. As a conclusion, new axes for telecom research and development will be identified, in order to support new applications, noticeably safety applications.

Keywords Transport, Information technology, Telecommunication, System architecture, Service, Electromagnetic wave propagation, Reference model, Mobile radiocommunication, Security.

Transport-specific communication services: safety-based or critical applications for mobiles and cooperation with infrastructure networks


1. As coordinator, NAVECOM, 2 rue du Plaimont, 91430 Igny, France
2. Laboratoire sur les Interactions Véhicule-Infrastructure-Conducteur (LIVIC), unité mixte INRETS-LCPC, 14 route de la Minière, Bâtiment 824, 78000 Versailles Satory, France
3. ST2E, 10 square du Chêne Germain, 35510 Cesson-Sévigné, France
4. SOFREAVIA, 3 carrefour de Weiden, 92441 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
5. ATECMAR, 152-154 bd du Général de Gaulle, 92380 Garches, France

Abstract Following a review of system requirements and frameworks, this article will set forth a panel of the concepts, developments and standard initiatives within the various areas of Intelligent Transport. A duality will be highlighted between the notions of critical, original and dimensioning services, on the one hand, and the conventional services proposed by open networks on the other. A number of short technical presentations will be devoted to current progress made in these transport-related areas: roads, rail, aeronautics and maritime. These presentations will discuss recent projects completed within the respective areas and are intended to reveal the fundamental trends at play not only in terms of qualitative solutions but in terms of performance as well. A synthesis will then be provided by means of crossreferencing such trends. A framework architecture will be generated for the entire scope of the study, by virtue of utilizing the duality between services. A set of major conclusions will be drawn, in particular within the perspective of Automated Road and synergies overlapping the various areas.

Keywords Transport, Telecommunication, Service, System architecture, Road transportation, Rail transportation, Air traffic control, Shipping, User need, Review.

ACTIF: the framework architecture for intelligent transport in France

Yannick DENIS1, Jean COLDEFY2, Patrick GENDRE3, Eric BOURLÈS4, Christophe CARRY5

1. CERTU, 9 rue Juliette Récamier, 69456 Lyon cedex 06, France
2. ALGOE, 9 bis route de Champagne, 69134 Ecully, France
3. CETE Méditerranée, Pôle d’activités des Milles, avenue Albert Einstein, BP 37000, 13791 Aix-en-Provence cedex 3, France
4. Ministère des Transports, Direction de la Sécurité et de la Circulation Routières (DSCR), Arche de la Défense, Paroi Sud, 92055 La Défense cedex, France
5. AQL, rue de la Châtaigneraie, BP 127, 25513 Cesson-Sévigné cedex, France

Abstract This article introduces ACTIF the French ITS framework architecture :
– for readers already in the
ITS domain, it will give a global and prospective view on this project and light on the “stakeholders” role with respect to ITS deployment ;
– for the newcomers, it shall introduce the issues of interoperability and information exchange between systems, and help understand how the
ACTIF approach may be similar to the systems engineering approach they are familiar with in their domain.

Keywords Transport, Interoperability, System design, Information technology, Service, Public transportation, Transportation of goods, France, Methodology.

Open Topics

Approximate expressions at low and high frequencies of induced voltages of common mode at the ends of an armoured line submissive at a punctual injection of current


* Laboratoire de génie électrique de l’ENSEM, Km 8, route d’El Jadida B.P 8118 Oasis Casablanca, Maroc
** Bel Engineering, av. Ariane 5, 1200 Bruxelles, Belgique.

Abstract With reference to a preceding paper, this paper allows, in a first step, to determine, at low and high frequencies, approached expressions of the induced common mode voltages at the extremities of a shielded line influenced by a punctual current injection along the shield. These expressions are established for the case of a helicoidal screen with four different schemes of earth connections at the extremities. In a second step, the correction function, i.e. the ratio between the exact and approached solution, and the limit of validity of this latter at high frequencies are addressed.

Keywords Transmission line, Coaxial line, Conducting plane, Shielded cable, Approximate method, Validity, Electromagnetic disturbance, Frequency characteristic, Electromagnetic coupling.

Mastering quality of service in GPRS/UMTS: an overview

Salaheddine MAÏZA*

* SFR, DEX/APO, Tour Séquoia, 1 place Carpeaux, F-92915 Paris-La-Défense, France

Abstract Quality of Service (QoS) has become a very important issue in networking, covering many performance aspects and numerous measures. The deployment of next generation wireless system includes 2.5G General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which is the packet-switched extension of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM), and Third-Generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to meet the needs of larger capacity and higher bit rates. An UMTS packet core network is an IP-based network. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Forum developed several IP QoS related mechanisms available for IP transport networks. Service Quality Management (SQM), one component of Telecommunication Management Network (TMN), will enable providers to manage QoS against objectives set out in customer Service Level Agreements (SLAs) and will enable customers to compare the service offerings of different service providers.

Keywords Mobile radiocommunication, Global System for Mobile Communication, General Packet Radio Service, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, Quality of Service, Telecommunication management network, Traffic contract, Measurement indicator, Quality management.

Minimization of energy consumption in ad hoc networks

Sidi-Mohammed SENOUCI, Guy PUJOLLE

Laboratoire LIP6, Université de Paris VI; 8, rue du Capitaine Scott, 75015 Paris – France

Abstract An ad hoc network is a collection of wireless devices forming a temporary network independently of any administration or fixed infrastructure. The main benefits of this new generation of mobile networks are flexibility and their low cost. Wireless devices have maximum utility when they can be used “anywhere at anytime”. However, one of the greatest limitations to that goal is the finite power supplies. Since batteries provide limited power, a general constraint of wireless communication is the short continuous operation time of mobile terminals. This constraint is more important for the ad hoc networks, since every terminal has to perform the functions of a router. Therefore, energy consumption should be a crucial issue while designing new communication protocols and particularly ad hoc routing protocols. We propose, in this paper, some extensions to the most important on-demand routing algorithm, AODV (Ad hoc On demand Distance Vector). The discovery mechanism in these extensions uses energy as a routing metric. These algorithms improve the network survivability by maintaining the network connectivity, which is the strong requirement for a high-quality communication. They carry out this objective with low message overhead for computing routes and without affecting the other network protocol layers.

Keywords Telecommunication network, Ad hoc network, Mobile radiocommunication, Energy consumption, Network routing, Survival, Lifetime.