Special issue | Wireless and Mobile Sensing Technologies for the Future Internet

Vol. 72, n° 3-4, March-April 2017
Content available on Springerlink

Guest editors

Abdelouahid Derhab, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia
Mohamed Guerroumi
, USTHB University, Algeria
Mohamed Younis
, University of Maryland Baltimore County, USA


Wireless and Mobile Sensing Technologies for the Future Internet

Abdelouahid Derhab, Mohamed Guerroumi, Mohamed Younis


Path planning for mobile DCs in future cities

Fadi Al-Turjman1, Mehmet Karakoc2,  Melih Gunay2

(1) Department of Computer Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Turkey 
(2) Department of Computer Engineering, University of Akdeniz, Turkey

Abstract In future smart-cities, public transportation vehicles are planned to serve as data couriers (DCs) in order to exchange massive amounts of data chunks. In this research, we study the path planning problem for these DCs while optimizing their counts and their total traveled distances. As the total collected load on a given DC route cannot exceed its storage capacity, it is important to decide on the size of the exchanged data-packets (images, videos, etc.) and the sequence of the targeted data sources to be visited. We propose a hybrid heuristic approach for public data delivery in smart-city settings. In this approach, public vehicles are utilized as DCs that read/collect data from numerously distributed Access Points (APs) and relay it back to a central processing base-station in the city. We also introduce a cost-based fitness function for DCs election in the smart-city paradigm. Our cost-based function considers resource limitations in terms of DCs count, storage capacity, and energy consumption. Extensive simulations are performed, and the results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach in comparison to other heuristic approaches with respect to total traveled distances and overall time complexity.

Keywords Data courier, Path planning, Data delivery, Smart City, Genetic algorithms, Local search.

An enhanced mutual authentication and key agreement scheme for mobile user roaming service in global mobility networks

Fan Wu1, Lili Xu2, Saru Kumari3,Xiong Li4, Muhammad Khurram Khan5, Ashok Kumar Das6

(1) Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Institute of Technology, China                
(2) School of Information Science and Technology, Xiamen University, China                                    
(3) Department of Mathematics, Chaudhary Charan Singh University, India                                                               
(4) School of Computer Science and Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, China                                       
(5) Center of Excellence in Information Assurance (COEIA), King Saud University, Saudi Arabia                                         
(6) Center for Security, Theory and Algorithmic Research, International Institute of Information Technology, India

Abstract Roaming service is required in the ubiquitous access used in the global mobility networks (GLOMONETs) and the security is one of the most important issues. Many researchers focus their interests on authentication schemes for GLOMONETs. In 2015, Gope and Hwang, Zhang et al. and Farash et al. proposed their key agreement authentication schemes for GLOMONETs, respectively. However, we find weaknesses in them. Gope and Hwang’s scheme is under the off-line guessing attack and the de-synchronization attack. Moreover, it does not keep strong forward security and the session key is known by the home agent. Zhang et al.’s scheme has several weaknesses including vulnerability to the off-line guessing attack, destitution of password change phase, and the leakage of updated session key. Farash et al.’s scheme lacks user anonymity and strong forward secrecy and is vulnerable to the off-line password guessing attack. The session key is known to the home agent, too. Furthermore, neither Gope and Hwang’s scheme nor Farash et al.’s scheme has the session key update phase. To eliminate the problems, we present an improved authentication and key agreement scheme for GLOMONETs. According to the formal proof and the informal analysis, our scheme is well-performed and applicable.

Keywords Global mobility network, User anonymity, Formal proof, Mutual authentication.

Signals of opportunity geolocation methods for urban and indoor environments

T. O. Mansfield, B. V. Ghita, M. A. Ambroze

School of Computing and Mathematics, Plymouth University, UK

Abstract Motivated by the geolocation requirements of future mobile network applications such as portable internet of things (IoT) devices and automated airborne drone systems, this paper aims to provide techniques for improving device geolocation estimates in urban and indoor locations. In these applications low size, weight and power are vital design constraints. This paper proposes methods for improving the geolocation estimate available to a system in indoor and urban environments without the need for addition sensing or transmitting hardware. This paper proposes novel system application techniques that enable the integration of signals of opportunity, providing a robust geolocation estimate without any additional hardware. The proposed method utilises a sinusoidal Kalman filter architecture to analyse raw radio frequency (RF) signals that surround a system in urban and indoor environments. The introduced techniques efficiently analyse the raw RF data from any signal of opportunity and combine it with higher level geolocation sensors to provide an improved geolocation estimate. The improvements achieved by the system in a range of environments have been simulated, analysed and compared to the results obtained using the prior art. These improvements have been further validated and benchmarked by hardware test. The results obtained provide evidence that the efficient use of signals of opportunity coupled with common navigation sensors can provide a robust and reliable geolocation system in indoor and urban environments.

Keywords Signals of opportunity, Kalman filtering, Radio navigation and geolocation.

Majority-consensus fusion approach for elderly IoT-based healthcare applications

Faouzi Sebbak, Farid Benhammadi

Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), Algeria

Abstract Nowadays, tremendous growth of Internet of Things (IoT) applications is seen in smart environments such as medical remote care applications which are crucial due to the general aging of the population. With the recent advancements in IoT-based healthcare technologies, activity recognition can be used as the key part of the intelligent healthcare systems to monitor elderly people to live independently at homes and promote a better care. Recently, the evidence theory and its derivates approaches began to take place in the fields of activity recognition in these smart systems. However, these approaches are generally inconsistent with the probability calculus due to the lower and upper probability bounds considering the combined evidences. To overcome these challenges and to get more precisely the reconcilement between the evidence theory with the frequentist approach of probability calculus, this work proposes a new methodology for combining beliefs, addressing some of the disadvantages exhibited by the evidence theory and its derivatives. This methodology merges the non-normalized conjunctive and the majority rules. The proposed rule is evaluated in numerical simulation case studies involving the activity recognition in a smart home environment. The results show that this strategy produces intuitive results in favor of the more committed hypothesis.

Keywords Internet of things, Health care, Evidence theory, Combination rule, Probability calculus reconcilement.


On energy efficiency in underwater wireless sensor networks with cooperative routing

Ashfaq Ahmad1, Sheeraz Ahmed1, Muhammad Imran2, Masoom Alam1, Iftikhar Azim Niaz1, Nadeem Javaid1

(1) COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Pakistan                               
(2) King Saud University, Saudi Arabia

Abstract In this paper, we exploit cooperative communication for designing an energy-efficient routing algorithm in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Each network node is equipped with a single omnidirectional antenna and multiple node coordinates while taking advantage of spatial diversity. This research work is limited in scope to amplify-and-forward (AF) scheme at the relay node and fixed ratio combining (FRC) strategy at the receiver node. Cooperative diversity at the physical layer and multi-hop routing at the network layer enable us to formulate minimum energy routing as a joint optimization of the transmission power at physical layer and link selection at the network layer. Simulations results show that our proposed cooperative energy-efficient routing for UWSN (Co-EEUWSN) performs better than the selected non-cooperative routing protocols (depth-based routing (DBR) and energy-efficient DBR (EEDBR)) and cooperative DBR (Co-DBR) in terms of packet delivery ratio, end-to-end delay, and energy efficiency.

Keywords Cooperative communication, Relay sensor node, Routing protocol, Multi-hop, Single-hop, Diversity, Energy consumption, Packet delivery ratio.

Load balancing aware SDMA-based beaconing approach in vehicular ad hoc networks

Zouina Doukha1, Sofian Ali BenMussa2, Kayhan Zrar Ghafoor3, Iman Loumachi1, Samira Moussaoui1

(1) Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Science and Technology Houari Boumedien, Algeria                
(2) Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia                         
(3) Faculty of Engineering, School of Computing, Koya University, Iraq

Abstract Neighborhood discovery is a fundamental link layer service for safety and non-safety applications in VANETs. Till now, this service is made available by beaconing. But, several studies demonstrate its inefficiency. In the literature, several papers propose adaptive strategies to alleviate the channel load problem, but packet loss due to collision remains an open issue due to the randomness of beacon sending through the network. In this paper, we propose an SDMA-based beaconing with load balancing method that distributes beacon sending load fairly. In the proposed scheme, the vehicles self-organize themselves into groups depending on their positions. Then, all beacons are sent sequentially along the period, thereby reducing the congestion. We drive extensive simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our strategy.

Keywords Beaconing, SDMA, Load balancing, Synchronization, Beacon session.

Virtual coordinate system using dominating set for GPS-free adhoc networks

Shailendra Shukla1, Rajiv Misra2, Abhishek Agarwal2

(1) Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Information Technology, India                                   
(2) Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, India

Abstract Reported work on virtual coordinate assignment (VCA) schemes are iterative-based techniques which rely upon geometric projection (i.e., projecting on circle) or embedding of network topology to low-dimensional Euclidean space (like graph embedding, multidimensional scaling). The performance of existing VCA techniques is constrained by topological situations such as low density or having voids/holes, where greedy forwarding suffers due to local minima when no neighbor is found closer to the destination or low-quality routes comprised of long distance hops. Another drawback of existing VCA techniques is the requirement of thousand iterations for usable coordinate convergence. In order to overcome these drawbacks, we propose a novel virtual coordinate construction technique using graph-theoretic dominating sets. Dominating set (DS) of G is a subset of vertices such that each vertex in G is either in DS or has a neighbor in DS. We found that our virtual coordinate assignment using dominating set algorithm has an approximation ratio ((4.8+ln5)opt+1.2), where opt is the minimum size dominating set which has the same approximation ratio as minimum dominating set problem. Our algorithm has time complexity O(n) times and O(D) rounds and message complexity is O(nlogn), where D is the radius and n is the number of nodes in networks.

Keywords Wireless sensor networks, Virtual coordinates assignment and Dominating set.

The road to dynamic Future Internet via content characterization

Fadi Al-Turjman1, Melih Gunay2, Irem Kucukoglu2

(1) Department of Computer Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Northern Cyprus Campus, Turkey                  
(2) Department of Computer Engineering, Akdeniz University, Turkey

Abstract The Internet evolved from a network with a few terminals to an intractable network of millions of nodes. Recent interest in information-centric networks (ICNs) is gaining significant momentum as a Future Internet paradigm. The key question is, hence, how to model the massive amount of connected nodes with their content requests in dynamic paradigm. In this paper, we present a novel method to characterize data requests based on content demand ellipse (CDE), focusing on efficient content access and distribution as opposed to mere communication between data consumers and publishers. We employ an approach of a promising eminence, where requests are characterized by type and popularity. Significant case studies are used to demonstrate that critical properties of ellipses may be used to characterize the content request irregularity during peak times. Depending on the degree of irregularity, the curve we plot becomes elliptic with a positive eccentricity less than one and an orientation centered with a bias. Real traffic data have been used to demonstrate how various data demand/request types affect eccentricity, orientation, and bias. Through simulations, we propose a dynamic resource allocation framework for Virtual Data Repeaters (VDRs) by correlating the resource allocation schema with the factors that affect the CDE in ICN.

Keywords Information-centric networks, Elliptical model, Future Internet, Traffic characterization, Virtual Data Repeater.

Activities scheduling algorithms based on probabilistic coverage models for wireless sensor networks

Mohammed Boudali1, Mustapha Reda Senouci1, Mohamed Aissani1, Walid-Khaled Hidouci2

(1) Ecole Militaire Polytechnique (EMP), Algeria                                  
(2) Ecole nationale Supérieure d’Informatique d’Alger (E.S.I.), Algeria

Abstract Area monitoring using Internet and barrier coverage is a typical application of wireless sensor networks. The main concerns in this type of applications are coverage efficiency and sensor energy conservation. For that, many activities scheduling algorithms are proposed in the literature. Unlike prior efforts based on an unrealistic binary sensor coverage model, this paper proposes three efficient activities scheduling algorithms based on realistic sensor coverage models. The first algorithm (C1L-PBC) is centralized and it is based on a coverage graph. The second algorithm (D1L-PBC) is distributed and it ensures 1-barrier coverage; whereas, the third one (D2L-PBC) is also distributed and it guarantees 2-barrier coverage. The obtained experimental results show that the proposed algorithms can effectively guarantee the barrier coverage and prolong the sensor network lifetime.

Keywords Wireless sensor networks, Barrier coverage, Intrusion detection, Activities scheduling algorithms, Network lifetime.